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Restoration, 18th Century, Neoclassical, Augustan. You need to understand the politics, sociology, and economics of the period if you want to understand its literature. The first monarch of the period is Charles II.
He professed to support the Church of England but was secretly Roman Catholic. In public he professed loyalty to his childless queen Henrietta but in public had a series of mistresses, several of whom bore him bastard children one of whom Charles would make Duke of Monmouth.
He was both an intellectual and a boor. It is still in force today. The family trees above are from the Royal Family website but they are copied from PDF files, so they may be hard to read. The URL for the originals is http: Kind of weird to think about the Queen having a web page, but there you go.
Political and Economic Complications This was a time of civil profitability and military unrest. Britain was involved in a series of commercial wars against the Dutch, French, Austrians, Spanish, and eventually its own American colonists over the lucrative trade opportunities with the New World and with the South Seas.
It is the time of party politics: It was the age of the Almighty Pound. Economics were the justification for participating in the Afro-Caribbean slave trade, colonialist expansion into India and eventually Australia and the Far East, and the enclosure of public grazing lands and anti-poaching laws in communal forests.
Britain is shifting from a kingdom to an empire, and that shift had its costs. The monarchic succession had one major consequence that is still felt.
The interests of the new wealthy classes were his chief concern. He was succeeded in the position by a series of notable Whigs, including Pitt the Elder and Pitt the Younger, who successfully pursued a policy of valorizing the moneyed classes.
There were a few voices of social reform in the later parts of the period: John Wilkes, champion of voting rights for commoners and of abolition; Mary Wollstonecraft, an early advocate of the rights of women; John Cobbett, a proto-Marxist economic reformer; and John Wesley, supporter of evangelical Methodism.
They attempted to question the moral complacency of the Whig age, but with inconsistent success. The British felt relatively invincible politically, which led to an assumption of their moral and intellectual supremacy. It is the age of the rise of the Middle Class.
Gentlemen flocked to coffee houses in the City of London to discuss the latest periodicals, while ladies organized elaborate rituals for drinking that expensive, bitter new imported beverage, chocolate. It is an age of conspicuous consumption; Martha Stewart would have felt right at home.
For the first time periodicals are filled with advertisements for home decorations, fashions, and furniture.
Architecture enters the Baroque period. It becomes very important to wear clothing by the best designers, to have your hair done by the best hairdressers, and so on, and so forth.
People whose parents were servants now had servants themselves.
Mar 22, · “The Rise of English” - by Terry Eagleton In eighteenth-century England, literature was considered to be that which conformed to the standards of ‘polite letters’, meaning that which embodied the values and tastes of the upper classes (usually). rise of the middle class helped define the explicit division of class into vertical RISE AND FALL: TROPES OF VERTICALITY IN MIDDLE ENGLISH LITERATURE by Joseph Paul Rodriguez serves as the core of Bernard’s essay.1 He positions humility and pride as. May 02, · Research Topics in English Literature. Updated on January 31, Lisa. more. Researching for an English Literature essay can be tough but finding a topic you are really interested in helps make it easier. My Capstone class was titled “The Age of Novels” and focused on the rise of the novel during the eighteenth Reviews:
The age of complacency is marked by a significant rise in literacy, because for the first time, the Middle Class had time for leisure and wanted entertainments to fill it. This is the age of the rise of the newspaper and the periodical, the return of the public theatre, and the birth of the novel.
Theatres moved from the slums of Southwark to the fashionable West End of London, near Covent Garden where they still remain. The Age of Wit This is an age where verbal skill and brilliant verbal repartee counted.
One of the key words for the entire period is wit, and you should watch it wherever it pops up because it is crucial to understanding the period. Not only upper-class courtiers were expected to show this descendant of sprezzatura; now everyone with money was supposed to be verbally talented.
So you sent your sons on the Grand Tour of Europe to give them polish, while you taught your daughters just enough French and Italian words to drop into their conversation to make them seem sophisticated. Age of Marketing The commercialism and the promotion of Whig interests led to the invention, really, of marketing.
The early periodicals are filled with advertisements like "Mr. Philips has received a load of China silk that will interest ladies of most discriminating taste" and the like.
The early ancestors of People magazine and the society pages show up in the Court Circular still published in the London Times and the lists of marriages and birth announcements.
You could buy a title if you were a wealthy enough Whig in favor with the government, and this is the age where the snobbery against "marrying a Cit" begins see Pride and Prejudice. New professions spring up in this period: And they bought what would give them that look. One was not supposed to rebel or act out or be outrageous; one was supposed to show control.Rise of English Novel.
Introduction: In the eighteenth century the years after the forties witnessed a wonderful efflorescence of a new literary genre which was soon to establish itself for all times to come as the dominant literary form. The eighteenth century was the age in which the novel was established as the most outstanding and enduring form of literature.
The periodical essay, which was another gift of this century to English literature, was born and died in the century, but the novel was to enjoy an enduring career.
The Rise of the English Novel The dominant genre. Renaissance Literature. The steady rise of nationalism, coupled with the first flourishing of democracy, were traits common to the entire Continent.
Josh holds a Masters degree in English Literature from Morehead State University, and a Masters degree in Library Science from the University of Kentucky. Major Writers of the Renaissance. This free English Literature essay on Poem essay: 'Still I'll Rise' is perfect for English Literature students to use as an example.
This free English Literature essay on Poem essay: 'Still I'll Rise' is perfect for English Literature students to . GCSE (9–1) English Literature An Inspector Calls – Candidate style answers 6 Script A Examiner commentary This is a higher level response. The candidate directly addresses the question, immediately citing ‘a conflict in viewpoint between the older generation and the.
The Rise and Fall of English: Reconstructing English as a Discipline. by Robert Scholes. Yale University Press, pp., $ The Employment of English: Theory, Jobs, and the Future of Literary Studies by Michael Bérubé (who retains her faculty position as a literature professor).