I liked the way he differed from traditional psychologists.
A Theory of Human Motivation A. Maslow Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50, These conclusions may be briefly summarized as follows: The integrated wholeness of the organism must be one of the foundation stones of motivation theory.
The hunger drive or any other physiological drive was rejected as a centering point or model for a definitive theory of motivation. Any drive that is somatically based and localizable was shown Maslow research paper be atypical rather than typical in human motivation.
Such a theory should stress and center itself upon ultimate or basic goals rather than partial or superficial ones, upon ends rather than means to these ends. Such a stress would imply a more central place for unconscious than for conscious motivations. There are usually available various cultural paths to the same goal.
Therefore conscious, specific, local-cultural desires are not as fundamental in motivation theory as the more basic, unconscious goals. Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied.
Typically an act has more than one motivation. Practically all organismic states are to be understood as motivated and as motivating. Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of pre-potency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.
Man is a perpetually wanting animal. Also no need or drive can be treated as if it were isolated or discrete; every drive is related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of Maslow research paper drives.
Lists of drives will get us nowhere for various theoretical and practical reasons. Furthermore any classification of motivations [p. Classifications of motivations must be based upon goals rather than upon instigating drives or motivated behavior.
Motivation theory should be human-centered rather than animal-centered. The situation or the field in which the organism reacts must be taken into account but the field alone can rarely serve as an exclusive explanation for behavior.
Furthermore the field itself must be interpreted in terms of the organism. Field theory cannot be a substitute for motivation theory. Not only the integration of the organism must be taken into account, but also the possibility of isolated, specific, partial or segmental reactions.
It has since become necessary to add to these another affirmation. Motivation theory is not synonymous with behavior theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behavior.
While behavior is almost always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well. The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental.
It derives most directly, however, from clinical experience. This theory is, I think, in the functionalist tradition of James and Dewey, and is fused with the holism of Wertheimer 19Goldstein 6and Gestalt Psychology, and with the dynamicism of Freud 4 and Adler 1. It is far easier to perceive and to criticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them.
Mostly this is because of the very serious lack of sound data in this area. I conceive this lack of sound facts to be due primarily to the absence of a valid theory of motivation. The present theory then must be considered to be a suggested program or framework for future research and must stand or fall, not so much on facts available or evidence presented, as upon researches to be done, researches suggested perhaps, by the questions raised in this paper.
Two recent lines of research make it necessary to revise our customary notions about these needs, first, the development of the concept of homeostasis, and second, the finding that appetites preferential choices among foods are a fairly efficient indication of actual needs or lacks in the body.
Cannon 2 has described this process for 1 the water content of the blood, 2 salt content, 3 sugar content, 4 protein content, 5 fat content, 6 calcium content, 7 oxygen content, 8 constant hydrogen-ion level acid-base balance and 9 constant temperature of the blood.
Obviously this list can be extended to include other minerals, the hormones, vitamins, etc. Young in a recent article 21 has summarized the work on appetite in its relation to body needs. If the body lacks some chemical, the individual will tend to develop a specific appetite or partial hunger for that food element.
Thus it seems impossible as well as useless to make any list of fundamental physiological needs for they can come to almost any number one might wish, depending on the degree of specificity of description.
We can not identify all physiological needs as homeostatic.
That sexual desire, sleepiness, sheer activity and maternal behavior in animals, are homeostatic, has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, this list would not include the various sensory pleasures tastes, smells, tickling, stroking which are probably physiological and which may become the goals of motivated behavior.Paper Masters writes custom research papers on Maslow’s Hierarchy and examine the theory, developed by Abraham Maslow, in which human development is laid out along a hierarchy, from the most basic to the more psychologically advanced needs of a person.
The Hierarchy of needs theory is a formation of the needs of an individual person. Basically this hierarchy are based on five level which is classified into Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love/Belonging needs, Esteem needs and Self-actualization needs/5(1).
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The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and . The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and . The Study of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs This Research Paper The Study of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on schwenkreis.com Autor: review • January 1, • Research Paper • 4/4(1).
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Maslow's Hierarchy of Need This Research Paper Maslow's Hierarchy of Need and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on schwenkreis.com Autor: review • July 15, • Research Paper • 1, Words (6 Pages) • 1, Views.
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